From a Report dated 18th June 1829, in which he claims to have been the only European, who visited the place. Whilst the Darjeeling area was originally occupied by the Lepcha, it was not particularly developed as an area until the introduction of tea plants (from China) by the British in the early 19th century. Both the newly discovered assamica variety and the sinensis variety were planted but the sloped drainage, cool winters and cloud cover favoured sinensis. The land gifted to East India Co. in 1835 did not comprise the whole present Darjeeling. In 2004, Darjeeling tea became India's first product to receive legal geographical indication protection under the World Trade Organization's TRIPS Agreement[8] and in 2011 it was given Protected Geographical Indication status in the European Union. Setting up of different Boards/ Committees for GTA areas. [3] Darjeeling's population had grown from less than a 100 in the 1830s to 95,000 people with 100 tea gardens in 1885, predominately Indian Gorkha and Lepcha migrants from Nepal and Sikkim, as the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, the use of steamships and the Suez Canal reduced shipping times. The steeped liquor usually appears light golden to a darker bronze color with a strong fruity aroma. The sorting of the dried product according to tea leaf grading is completed and shipped to Kolkata for auctioning, though many estates sell privately under contracts. The Bhutanese were constantly raiding and plundering the areas of Darjeeling. Because the provision of these services are required by law, fair trade organizations, such as the Fairtrade International, allow their fair trade premiums be paid to plantation owners, rather than the workers, on condition that the owners can only use the premium to offset some of the costs of providing these services. A land-mark year in the History of Darjeeling was 1835, but it would be appropriate to trace its History before that. The attacks by the leafhopper and moth release defensive chemicals from the plant and naturally begins oxidation process within the leaves. Environmental factors combined with a history of organized cultivation and processing has created a terroir unique to Darjeeling tea. Accordingly in 1828 Captain Lloyd was deputed to settle the dispute. A hotel was started at Kurseong and one at Darjeeling. Camellia sinensis was first planted in the Darjeeling region in the mid-1800s. A summer resort for British officials to escape the heat in the plains. Defeat of the Gorkhalis led to the Treaty of Sugauli,1815 in which, ‘Nepal had to cede all those’ territories the Gorkhas had annexed from the Raja of Sikkim to the East India Company. No one has cared to examine the source from where this figure has been derived. Darjeeling got its name derived from “Dorje” which means “thunderbolts” and “Ling” means the “place” and collectively means “the land of … As per Memorandum of Agreement signed between Government of India, Government of West Bengal and Gorkha Janmukti Morcha, Gorkha Territorial Act XX of 2011, having been assented to by the President of India was first published in Kolkata Gazette, Extraordinary of the 12th March 2012. For every 150 milliliters (​2⁄3 cup) of water used, 2 to 3 grams (one tablespoon) of loose leaf tea is added. Determination of Territorial limits of Constituencies of Gorkhaland Territorial Administration Sabha. However, the low wages contribute to a high rate of absenteeism of workers seeking higher paying work elsewhere. Consequently, Darjeeling, Kalimpong and Kurseong and their tea estates are populated predominately by Indian Gorkha people. In 1841 the Govt. Through the years, it has not rested on its laurels but taken the achievements as a base and striven for excellence. The British envoy was openly insulted and returned to Darjeeling. The name ‘Darjeeling’came from the Tibetan words,’dorje’meaning thunderbolt (originally the scepter of Indra) and ‘ling’a place or land, hence ‘the land of the thunderbolt’. The place was mostly inhabited by the Lepchas and the Kirati people. By 1840 a road was built from Pankhabari and staging bungalows built at Pankbabari and Mahaldiram. The Tea Board of India recognizes 87 tea estates (also called "tea gardens") as producers of Darjeeling tea. "Quote" - The British connection with Darjeeling dates from 1816, when, at the close of the war with Nepal, the British made over to the Sikkim raja the tarai tract, which had been wrested from him and annexed by Nepal. Lord Bentinck promptly deputed Capt. The tea seeds were planted in the Darjeeling area as the English traders were wary about only having one supplier for their tea – China. "[12] The tea gardens are located on the hillsides of the Eastern Himalaya, between 600 and 2,000 metres in elevation. Resident in Nepal was transferred to Darjeeling as Superintendent. The subtropical and wet temperate forest cover that developed under these conditions left slightly acidic loamy soils with high organic materials. The proposal was accepted in 1879 after a positi… In 1706 the king lost Kalimpong to the Bhutanese. Release of RIDF loans for rural infrastructure development of areas under GTA. A road from Darjeeling to Teesta was constructed. They are harvested in October-November and provides a herbaceous and soft muscatel flavour but with a fuller body and darker colour than previous flushes, and is compared favorably with Nepali teas. Apart from these estates, a relatively small amount of tea is produced in farm cooperatives but they lack processing and quality control infrastructure. A series of wars followed, eventually leadi… The limits of the existing Darjeeling District have been altered by way of bifurcating it into two separate districts, namely Darjeeling with its headquarters at Darjeeling and Kalimpong with its headquarters at Kalimpong vide Notification No 36-PAR (AR)/0/2R-2/16 dated 07/02/2017 of the Department of Personnel & Administrative Reforms and e-Governance. Success of assamica at the nearby Dooars-Terai tea gardens led to infrastructure investments that would be extend up the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region, allowing more machinery and supplies to reach the tea gardens. Serve as a British outpost in the Himalayas. Siliguri, at the base of the Himalayas, was connected with Calcutta (now Kolkata) by a metre gauge railway in 1878. 6,000 was stopped and the British annexed 640 square miles of additional territory from Sikkim. It was entirely surrounded by the Raja’s dominions – entry and exit being restricted to a narrow path, which included the sites of Darjeeling and Kurseong towns and touched the plains near Pankhabari. While the original plantings succeeded, Campbell moved to Lebong where he and several other residents planted a new batch, in 1846, of both varieties (sinensis and assamica). No. Ten years later dispute once again arose between Sikkim and Nepal, which according to the Treaty of Titalia, were referred to the Governor General. In the meantime, British and Sikkim relations soured. Franklin Prestage, an agent of the Eastern Bengal Railway, approached the government with a proposal to lay a steam tramway from Siliguri to Darjeeling. Matters related to Clean and Green Darjeeling. At the time, the British were seeking an alternative supply of tea apart China and attempted growing the plant in several candidate areas in India. Sikkim undertook to complete the remaining part. It has been working on various projects viz. Being on steep slopes, the soil is well-drained and deep enough for long root systems, necessary for anchoring soil on slopes. In 1839 Dr. Campbell, the Br. So he stressed the need to procure the place for. Darjeeling quickly moved along the speedy track of progress and development under British governance. history of loreto The Loreto Sisters came to India in 1841 at the invitation of the then Archbishop of Calcutta, Dr. Carew. Apart from managing the various key departments, it plays a pivotal role and acts as an intermediate between the council and the Government. At the beginning Sikkim was not favourably disposed to the ideas of gifting Darjeeling – but finally circumstances made it necessary as Sikkim needed to be in the good books of the British. Camellia sinensis was first planted in the Darjeeling area in 1841 by Archibald Campbell who was working for the East India Company in this jungle-covered, sparsely-populated area to develop a hill station for use by the British stationed in Kolkata. The Chinese variety (sinensis) was planted in Saharanpur Botanical Gardens and propagated in other Himalayan gardens where Campbell had acquired seeds from Kumaun via Nathaniel Wallich. Labour relations are complex as, in addition to the seasonal influx of temporary workers, the permanent workers can be permanent residents of the estates where, pursuant to the Plantations Labour Act, housing, education, health and other services are provided by the estate, in addition to a base salary. less than 70 European houses had been built; A System of justice had been introduced in line with the tribal system; Experimental cultivation of tea, coffee and fruits had been introduced. 1835 the area of Darjeeling - that had been part of Sikkim until then - was annexed by British India. Arrangement of reliefs for people damaged by the landslides and other natural calamities. The word Darjeeling is derived from a Lepcha word ‘ Dorjeling ’ meaning the Land of Thunderbolt. The riots between the West Bengal government and the Gorkha National Liberation Front (GNLF) were so strong that Indian Army was called upon to maintain law and order. Matters related to Board of Administration, GTA. The history of Darjeeling district is linked to that of the East India Company, Sikkim, Nepal and Bhutan.. Darjeeling teas, especially the first flush, tend to be withered longer than other black teas; a hard wither can reduce a leaf's water content by more than half, affecting polyphenol oxidase activity and leaving a more green appearance. belonged to Nepal, which won it by conquest’. And control of the remainder was wrested from them by the Gurkhas who invaded Sikkim in 1780, following the consolidation of the latter's rule in Nepal. It comprised the entire ‘Sikkim Morung or Terai’ i.e. History. We learn that Lloyd visited ‘the old Gorkha Station called Darjeeling’, for six days in Feb. 1829 and ‘was immediately struck with it being well adapted for the purpose of a sanatorium’ (he was apprehensive of the winters suggested Ging). The Chinese variety (sinensis) was planted in Saharanpur B… They jointly negotiate together with the various unions and the government so that workers across numerous tea estates receive the same compensation. These annexations by the Gurkhas, however, brought them into conflict with the British. Most of the tea bushes in Darjeeling owe their origin to tea seeds from China “smuggled” out by famous Scot adventurer and botanist Robert Fortune nearly 200 years ago. Due to his (Campbell’s) efforts, by 1852 – an excellent Sanatorium had been built, a Hill Corps had been established to maintain order and communication. Darjeeling definition is - a tea of high quality grown especially in the mountainous districts of northern India. The history of Darjeeling Tea is intertwined with the history of Darjeeling built over 150 years from the time of the British Raj. Since 2004, the term Darjeeling tea has been a registered geographical indication referring to products produced on certain estates within Darjeeling and Kalimpong. Unlike when you see a retro laundromat façade and then walk inside to discover a hipster coffee shop with $15 avocado toast, Jeff Koehler’s “Darjeeling: A History of the World’s Greatest Tea” is not an ironically-titled wine book in disguise. So the major problem faced by the administration was total native settlers. It was narrow enclave of 138 square miles, about 30 miles long and 6 miles wide. As the Soviet Union replaced the United Kingdom as India's largest tea customers, Darjeeling gardens were supplemented with assamica plantings to accommodate their preference for that variety.[5]. The Anglo-Nepal war broke out in 1814. They followed a torturous winding path – like the roads here – of skewed global trade and politics of the colonial era. With more area being opened for tea crops at the expense of natural area and the introduction of pesticides and fertilizers, yields increased from 7.8 to 10 million kilograms between 1950 and 1960, though this came at the cost of increased soil instability. Raids from Sikkim however continued. Originally, Darjeeling was a part of the Kingdom of Sikkim. The objective is to establish an autonomous self-governing body to administer the region so that the socio-economic, infrastructural, educational, cultural and linguistic development is expedited and the ethnic identity of Gorkhas established, thereby achieving all-round development of the people of the region. In 1860 the British occupied Rinchingpong. Tibet, instigated by China, did not look favourably to British presence in the Sikkim Himalayas. Accordingly, GTA Sabha was constituted on 02.08.2012 with forty-five elected members and five members nominated by the Governor. History of Darjeeling hills, Terai and Dooars shows that this region was never a part of the Indian mainland, but rather, it was a hotly contested geographical area between the three traditional kingdoms of Sikkim, Bhutan, Tibet and Nepal. History of Darjeeling is quite unique, interesting and even entertaining. The tea leaves are processed as black tea, though some estates have expanded their product offerings to include leaves suitable for making green, white and oolong teas. In 2000, the Tea Board created new licensing requirements for Darjeeling tea exporters, including product authentication and a prohibition on blending, which allowed them to issue certificates of origin. So often with food history books, the writer gets so tied up in the cold information and forgets to make the reader feel attachment to the subject. [23] The tea estate workers have historically relied on workers coming from Nepal as a source of inexpensive labour. [24], First flush Darjeeling tea before and after, "India's tea exporters suffer with decline of 9 million kg in shipments in 2015", "GI tag: TN trails Karnataka with 18 products", "Don't Call It Darjeeling, It's Nepali Tea", "Fairtrade Standard for Tea for Hired Labour and Traders", "Absenteeism in Darjeeling tea sector hits 50%", "Darjeeling's general strike ends too late to save tea harvest", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Darjeeling_tea&oldid=998207379, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Black (green, white and oolong also produced), This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 08:40. It was first discovered 5000 years ago in China, hence Sinensis, but in reality, is indigenous to both China and India. Their high tannin content allows them to be paired well with carbohydrate-rich foods, such as baked goods and pasta. As Darjeeling teas are low in malt and bitter characteristics and is appreciated for its delicate floral and fruit aromas, milk and sweeteners are typically not added. Tea connoisseurs recommend a water temperature ranging between 90 °C (194 °F) to 95 °C (203 °F) in a single infusion of 3 to 4 minutes, whereas first flushes, like other early spring teas such as Jin Jun Mei tea, use water of slightly lower temperature at 85 to 90°C and an infusion time of 2 to 3 minutes. Little is known of Sikkim’s history prior to the 17th century. The Raja appeared before the Governor General for compensation. In the meantime trouble arose with the adjoining state of Bhutan. The Raja of Sikkim was a mere cipher in the hands of the powerful Pagla Dewan (PM). Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. A book review of “Darjeeling: A History of the World’s Greatest Tea” by Miquel Hudin | 06-07-2019 | 1 Comment. ... (Darjeeling) to the British. Issues related to the transferred subjects to the GTA. The West Bengal government is also involved in providing regulatory supervision of numerous aspects of estate operations, including land use and labour agreements. the Siliguri sub-division and in the hills ‘ the whole southern part of Sikkim, between the Great Rangeet and the plains of India, and from Nepal on the west to the Bhutan frontier and the Teesta river on the east’. These are ideal conditions for the Camellia sinensis sinensis plant which flourishes with well-drained, slightly acidic soils, with periods of dormancy, and limited direct sunlight.[13]. elections, panchayat, law and order, revenue, etc. After rolling, the leaves are left to oxidize on trays before being fired to reduce the moisture level down to approximately 2% and sealing the ruptures which will be reopened with consumer's hot water. [14], The plant rapidly grows during the monsoon flush from July to September with larger and less flavourful leaves. It was in 1839 when Dr. Archibald Campbell came as a Superintendent of Darjeeling, the first possibility of cultivating Darjeeling tea came up. “I’d been to many tea places around the world, but nowhere struck me or intrigued me like Darjeeling,” he says, later explaining the draw is an ineffable combination of its isolation, topographic beauty, history, and the tradition and care of its tea production. Darjeeling Paperback – 31 Dec 1899 by Frederic P. Miller (Author) A concise history of the Darjeeling district since 1835 Paperback – 1 Jan 1922 by E. C. Dozey Concise History of The Darjeeling District Since 1835: With a Complete Itinerary of Tours in Sikkim and The District Hardcover – … DEED – ‘The Governor General, having expressed his desire for possession of the Hill of Darjeeling on account of its cool climate, for the purpose of enabling the servants of his Government, suffering from sickness, to avail themselves of its advantages,the Sikkim puttee Raja, out of friendship for the said Governor General, hereby present Darjeeling to the East India Co. that is, all the land South of the Great Rangeet River, East of the Balason, Kahail and Little Rangeet rivers and West of the Rungno and Mahanadi Rivers’. However after an agreement between the Government and the chief of The Gorkha National Liberation Front, Mr. Subsash Ghisingh, the agitation was suspended and paved the way for the formation of an autonomous council for the social, economic, educational and cultural advancement of the hill people. Being on the sides of the hills, at high elevations where cool dry air interacts with warm moist air, there can be persistent fog or cloud cover during the growing months. The leaves are first brought indoors where they are air blown overnight to dry them sufficiently so that their cells can be ruptured, initiating oxidation, when rolled without breaking the leaf. [20] Some of the notable tea estates include: The Government of West Bengal owns the land on which the estates are located and administer 30 to 90 year leases under the West Bengal Estates Acquisition Act to companies operating the estates. When in 1849 the Pagla Dewan arrested Campbell and Hooker, the British sent a fugitive expedition against Sikkim in 1850. [21] Studies of this arrangement have suggested that this has negatively effected the livelihoods of labourers, as owners have more than correspondingly reduced their contributions to the required services. General Lloyd was accordingly deputed to start negotiations with the Raja of Sikkim for the transfer of Darjeeling in return for an equivalent in money or land. Release of Additional Central Assistance as committed by the Central Government as per MOA signed. Darjeeling (Bengali: [ˈdarˌdʒiliŋ], Nepali: [darˈd͡ziliŋ]) is a city and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal.It is located in the Lesser Himalayas at an elevation of 2,000 metres (6,700 ft). The history of Darjeeling dates to the era when, the present area of Darjeeling was a buffer state between Nepal and Bhutan. not crush, tear, curl) Darjeeling teas are generally prepared in the same manner as other black teas. The historical backdrop of Darjeeling gardens goes back to 1847 when the then government chose to set our Darjeeling Tea nurseries for experimentation and development. The Nepalese marched till the east of Sikkim in 1780 as far as Tista River. Following Indian independence in 1947, practices shifted as British began to sell their stakes in the gardens to Indians and the 1953 Tea Act put the tea industry under the regulatory jurisdiction of the Tea Board of India. Darjeeling Tea History Tea is an evergreen plant of the Camellia family and is known as Camellia Sinensis. An annual grant of Rs. After independence, the estates were all subsequently sold to businesses in India and regulated under the laws of India. In the winter of 1864, a military force was dispatched to Bhutan and the whole of Bhutan Duars was captured. Despite a limited exemption for the tea industry the 1973 Foreign Exchange Regulations Act the new foreign ownership limitations resulted in Indian nationals becoming majority owners of the Darjeeling tea industry. Darjeeling: The Colorful History and Precarious Fate of the World’s Greatest Tea was an absolutely fabulous read. Constitutional Amendments required for GTA matters. Some estates create green or white teas from these as they demand less withering and no oxidation, however, when completed as black tea this flush is often sold below the cost of production for use in blending and domestic consumption. The name Darjeeling comes from the Tibetan words, Dorje (thunderbolt) and Ling (place or land), meaning the land of the thunderbolt. [2] A year after planting the first three Company experimental tea gardens in 1852, at Tukvar, Steinthal and Alubari, they reported having 2,000 tea plants and Robert Fortune was sent to provide an expert opinion on the "suitableness of the climate and soil of the Hills for the cultivation and manufacture of Tea". Gradually by 1852 Darjeeling began its initial business with three Darjeeling Tea Estate's specifically Tukvar, Steinthal, and Aloobari. The history of Darjeeling tea is nearly 150 years old when in 1841 a civil surgeon, Dr.Campbell planted some tea seeds in his garden experimentally in a place called Beechwood at Darjeeling at an altitude of about 7000ft above sea level. [11], Darjeeling tea is grown in the Darjeeling and Kalimpong districts, an area bound by Nepal to the west, Bhutan to the east and Sikkim to the north. It will be appropriate to start from Kharsang for it was here that Maharajah Thodup Namgyal and Maharani Yeshay Dolma were imprisoned. Second flush leaves are harvested after the plant has been attacked by a leafhopper and the camellia tortrix so that the leaves create a tea with a distinctive muscatel aroma. The forty-day riot led to the formation of Darjeeling Gorkha Hill Council, a body that was given semi-autonomous powers to govern the Darjeeling district. With the intervention of the British, the Gorkhas were prevented from turning the whole of Sikkim into a province of Nepal and Sikkim (including the present District of Darjeeling) was retained as a buffer state between Nepal, Bhutan and Tibet. In 1835 the nucleus of the present district of British Sikkim or Darjeeling was created by a cession of a portion of the hills by the raja of Sikkim to the British as a sanatorium. History of darjeeling The name ‘Darjeeling’ is derived from a monastery called ‘Dorje Ling’, built by Denzongpa tribals in 1765, on behalf of the Chogyal or King of Sikkim. Occasionally, actions of the Gorkhaland movement have disrupted operations of the Darjeeling tea estates, such as the 2017 bandh. Prior to its acquisition by the East India Co. in 1835, Darjeeling formed a part of Sikkim and for a brief period of Nepal. He devoted himself to the task of developing the station, attracting immigrants to cultivate the mountain slopes and stimulating trade and commerce. There was also rumors of a planned attack on Darjeeling. Inspite of all these, most of the tract that now comprise Darjeeling consisted of uninhabited impenetrable virgin forests. This amount was raised to Rs.6,000/- in 1846. The valley… [10] The climate creates four distinct periods of cultivation, each of which has unique characteristics. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Thereafter, the district administration has been continuously upholding the values that the country was based on. According to Sir Joseph Hooker ‘every obstacle was thrown in the way of a good understanding between Sikkim and the British Government’. It is oft [15] Some tea estates will produce a batch of Darjeeling oolong tea by limiting the amount of oxidation. are still handled by the district administration. [9][22] This also complicates wage negotiations as marginal increases are feared to come at the expense of a loss of social services. The persistent rain also results in less complete withering and oxidization during the processing stage. This fascinating book takes us through the history of Darjeeling as well as of tea and tea drinking in India. In pursuit of differentiating Darjeeling tea, the Darjeeling Planter's Association had been established, in 1983, to promote the product in other countries and a logo was copyrighted, consisting of the side profile of a woman holding two leaves and a bud and registered it in various countries and then, once it was eligible, internationally in the Madrid system. Previously Darjeeling formed a part of dominions of the Raja of Sikkim, who had been engaged in an unsuccessful warfare against the Gorkhas.From 1780 the Gorkhas constantly made inroads into Sikkim and by the beginning of 19th Century, they had overrun Sikkim as far eastward as the Teesta and had conquered and annexed the Terai. These first two flushes are the most sought after by tea connoisseurs. [4], With few exceptions, Darjeeling produces black teas. Herbert to examine and map the tract of land along with Grant with special reference to its strategic and communication benefits. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway, also known as the DHR or the Toy Train, is a 2 ft (610 mm) gauge railway that runs between New Jalpaiguri and Darjeeling in the Indian state of West Bengal.Built between 1879 and 1881, it is about 88 km (55 mi) long. The negotiations ended in the execution by the Raja of Sikkim of a Deed of Grant on the lst of Feb. 1835. 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